Tuesday, October 17, 2017

Open Access Books by Irfan Shahid from Dumbarton Oaks

Open Access Books by Irfan Shahid from Dumbarton Oaks
Irfan Shahîd
Byzantium and the Arabs in the Sixth Century, volume 1, part 1, Political and Military History is devoted to the main Arabian tribes that federates of the Byzantine Roman Empire. In the early sixth century Constantinople shifted its Arab alliance from the Salahids to the Kindites and especially the Ghassanids, who came to dominate Arab-Byzantine relations through the reign of Heraclius. Arranged chronologically, this study, the first in-depth account of the Ghassanids since the nineteenth century, draws widely from original sources in Greek, Syriac, and Arabic. Irfan Shahîd traces in detail the vicissitudes of the relationship between the Romans and the Ghassanids, and argues for the latter’s extensive role in the defense of the Byzantine Empire in its east.
Irfan Shahîd
Byzantium and the Arabs in the Sixth Century, volume 1 part 2, Ecclesiastical History provides a chronologically ordered account of the involvement of the Ghassanids in ecclesiastical affairs in the eastern region of the Byzantine Empire. Tracing the role of Arab tribes both inside and outside the Roman limes, Irfan Shahîd documents how the Ghassanids in particular came to establish and develop a distinct non-Chalcedonian church hierarchy, all the while remaining allies of the Chalcedonian emperors. Ghassanid phylarchs such as Mundir emerge not merely as loyal foederati but devout Christians. Shahîd extensively and critically analyzes the Greek, Syriac, and Arabic sources, including many obscure or unfamiliar texts to illuminate the religious landscape of the Arabs of the sixth century.
Irfan Shahîd
Byzantium and the Arabs in the Sixth Century, volume 2, part 1, Toponymy, Monuments, Historical Geography, and Frontier Studies is a topical study of the military, religious, and civil structures of the Ghassanids. Irfan Shahîd’s detailed study of Arab buildings of the sixth century illuminates how Byzantine provincial art and architecture were adopted and adapted by the federate Arabs for their own use. As monuments of Christian architecture, these federate structures constitute the missing link in the development of Arab architecture in the region between the earlier pagan (Nabataean and Palmyrene) and later Muslim (Umayyad). Drawing from literary and material evidence, Shahîd argues that the Gassanids were not nomadic, as traditionally believed, but thoroughly sedentary both in their roots and in the late Roman frontier zone they inherited. The third of four volumes dedicated to the sixth century, this book extensively depends upon the previous two volumes (volume 1, part 1, Political and Military History; volume 1, part 2, Ecclesiastical History).
Irfan Shahîd
Byzantium and the Arabs in the Sixth Century, volume 2, part 2, Economic, Social, and Cultural History is a topical study of Arab economic, social, and cultural history in the sixth century. Irfan Shahîd focuses on the economy of the Ghassanids and presents information on various trade routes and fairs. He reconstructs Ghassanid daily life by discussing topics as varied as music, food, medicine, the role of women, and horse racing. Shahîd concludes the volume with an examination of cultural life, including descriptions of urbanization, Arabic script, chivalry, and poetry. Throughout the volume, the author reveals the history of a fully developed and unique Christian-Arab culture. Shahîd exhaustively describes the society of the Ghassanids, and their contributions to the cultural environment that persisted in Oriens during the sixth century and continued into the Umayyad caliphate.
Irfan Shahîd
Just as the Tanūkhids rose and fell as the principal Arab foederati of Byzantium in the fourth century, so too in the fifth did the Salīḥids. The century, practically terra incognita in the history of Arab-Byzantine relations, is explored by Irfan Shahîd, who recovers from the sources the political, military, ecclesiastical, and cultural history of the Arab foederati in Oriens and the Arabian Peninsula during this period. Unlike their predecessors or successors, the foederati of the fifth century lived in perfect harmony with Byzantium. Federate-imperial relations were smooth: the Arab horse reached as far as Pentapolis in the West and possibly took part in Leo’s expedition against the Vandals. They were staunchly orthodox and participated in two ecumenical councils, Ephesus and Chalcedon, where their voice was audible. But their more enduring contributions were cultural, and may be associated with Dāwūd (David), the Salīḥid king; Petrus, the bishop of the Parembole; and possibly also Elias, patriarch of Jerusalem (494–516), a Roman Arab. The federate culture gave impetus to the rise of the Arabic script, Arabic poetry, and a simple form of an Arabic liturgy—the foundation for cultural achievements in subsequent centuries.
Irfan Shahîd
The fourth century, the century of Constantine, witnessed the foundation and rise of a new relationship between the Roman Empire and the Arabs. The warrior Arab groups in Oriens became foederati, allies of Byzantium, the Christian Roman empire, and so they remained until the Arab conquests. In Byzantium and the Arabs in the Fourth Century, Irfan Shahîd elucidates the birth of the new federate existence and the rise of its institutional forms and examines the various constituents of federate cultural life: the phylarchate, the episcopate, the beginnings of an Arab Church, an Arabic liturgy, and the earliest attested composition of Arabic poetry. He discusses the participation of the Arab foederati in Byzantium’s wars with her neighbors—the Persians and the Goths—during which those Arab allies, most notably the Tanūkhids, contributed to the welfare of the imperium and the ecclesia. The Arab federate horse galloped for Byzantium as far as Ctesiphon, Constantinople, and possibly Najrân in Arabia Felix. In the reign of Valens, the foederati appeared as the defenders of Nicene Orthodoxy: their soldiers fought for it; their stern and uncompromising saint, Moses, championed it; and their heroic and romantic queen, Mavia, negotiated for it.
Irfan Shahîd
The Arabs played an important role in Roman-controlled Oriens in the four centuries or so that elapsed from the Settlement of Pompey in 64 B.C. to the reign of Diocletian, A.D. 284–305. In Rome and the Arabs Irfan Shahîd explores this extensive but poorly known role and traces the phases of the Arab-Roman relationship, especially in the climactic third century, which witnessed the rise of many powerful Roman Arabs such as the Empresses of the Severan Dynasty, Emperor Philip, and the two rulers of Palmyra, Odenathus and Zenobia. Philip the Arab, the author argues, was the first Christian Roman emperor and Abgar the Great (ca. 200 A.D.) was the first Near Eastern ruler to adopt Christianity. In addition to political and military matters, the author also discusses Arab cultural contributions, pointing out the role of the Hellenized and Romanized Arabs in the urbanization of the region and in the progress of Christianity, particularly in Edessa under the Arab Abgarids.

Monday, October 16, 2017

Open Access Manuscripts Collections: Manuscripts in the Libraries of the Greek and Armenian Patriarchates in Jerusalem

https://www.loc.gov/collections/greek-and-armenian-patriarchates-of-jerusalem/about-this-collection/


 Manuscripts in the Libraries of the Greek and Armenian Patriarchates in Jerusalem 
1009 manuscripts digitized by Library of Congress from the set of microfilms.
"As Jerusalem, the location of Christ’s Passion, has been central to the Christian religion since its inception, all the early churches sought a presence in that storied and holy city. The Greek Orthodox Church and the Armenian Apostolic Church, for example, both maintain ancient patriarchates in Jerusalem and both have created renowned libraries in them..."
 Languages:
 See also: Alphabetical List of Open Access Islamic Manuscripts Collections

Open Access Manuscripts Collection: Manuscripts in St. Catherine's Monastery, Mount Sinai

https://www.loc.gov/collections/manuscripts-in-st-catherines-monastery-mount-sinai/about-this-collection/

 Manuscripts in St. Catherine's Monastery, Mount Sinai
1694 manuscripts digitized by Library of Congress from the set of microfilms.
"The renowned Eastern Orthodox Monastery of St. Catherine’s on Mt. Sinai was constructed by the Byzantine Emperor, Justinian I, in the late sixth century AD over the relics of the martyred saint and the place of the biblical burning bush as identified by St. Helena, the mother of the Roman Emperor, Constantine.  It is home to reputedly the oldest continuously run library in existence today. Its holdings of religious and secular manuscripts are legendary and allegedly second only in number to the collection held by the Vatican: from bibles, to patristic works, to liturgies and prayers books, and on to legal documents such as deeds, court cases, Fatwahs (legal opinions).  The greater proportion of the manuscripts were copied in Greek, and then in Syriac, Georgian, Coptic, Armenian, Arabic, Ottoman Turkish, and Ethiopic, as well as Old Church Slavonic..."


Languages:
See also: Alphabetical List of Open Access Islamic Manuscripts Collections

Friday, August 11, 2017

Scribes of the Cairo Geniza Crowdsource Project

Scribes of the Cairo Geniza
The purpose of phase I of Scribes of the Cairo Geniza is to sort Cairo Geniza fragments in order to prepare them for transcription in phase II (launching Spring 2018). In this phase, you will sort fragments into different categories based on their script types: whether they are written in Hebrew or Arabic scripts and formal or informal scripts, and whether they contain specific visual characteristics.
This information offers clues to the type of text a fragment contains. Having this information for the entire corpus will allow us to sort the fragments into workflows for the transcription tasks in phase II. For more on the characteristics you’ll be looking for and what they can tell us, see the Field Guide.
The results from Scribes of the Cairo Geniza have the potential to rewrite the history of the premodern Middle East, Mediterranean and Indian Ocean trade, and the Jewish diaspora. Until now, most of the information has remained locked away in undeciphered manuscript fragments; less than one-third of the 350,000 items have been catalogued in the 120 years that the cache has been known to exist. Virtually all scholars who have studied these texts have come away with a transformed sense of the history of the region and the long ties of intimacy among its people. Students and the general public will have the opportunity to benefit from encountering these fragments online and from learning how to sort and eventually transcribe them as members of this citizen scientist community. We see this project as a way for people with shared interests and different skill levels from around the world to meet in a common endeavor and unlock this storage chamber of ancient fragments.

Monday, June 26, 2017

Open Access Books from Brill Publishers

 
http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/books/9789004310483


Tense and Text in Classical Arabic : A Discourse-oriented Study of the Classical Arabic Tense System
Author: Michal Marmorstein

Publisher:     Leiden ; Boston : Brill, 2017.
Series: Studies in Semitic Languages and Linguistics , vol. 85
eISBN:     9789004310483 



http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/books/9789047441465



Islamic Reformism and Christianity : A Critical Reading of the Works of Muḥammad Rashīd Riḍā and His Associates (1898-1935)
Author: U. Ryad
Publisher:     Leiden ; Boston : Brill, 2009.
Series:  The History of Christian-Muslim Relations , vol. 12
E - ISBN : 9789047441465




http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/books/9789004192119



The Mongols and the Armenians (1220-1335)
Author: Bayarsaikhan Dashdondog
Publisher:     Leiden ; Boston : Brill, 2010.
Series:  Brill's Inner Asian Library, vol. 24
E-ISBN : 9789004192119



http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/books/9789004190962



The Ottoman Crimean War (1853-1856)
Author: C. Badem
Publisher:     Leiden ; Boston : Brill, 2010.
Series:  The Ottoman Empire and its Heritage, v. 44
E - ISBN : 9789004190962



http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/books/9789004203976


Principles of Islamic International Criminal Law : A Comparative Search
Author: F. Malekian
Publisher:     Leiden ; Boston : Brill, 2011
Series:  Brill's Arab and Islamic Laws Series, vol. 5
E - ISBN : 9789004203976


Monday, June 12, 2017

Crafts of Syria

http://craftsofsyria.uvic.ca/


Crafts of Syria

"... Many of the monuments and archaeological sites have been looted, with some deliberately destroyed during the conflict. The crafts are another significant component of the rich cultural heritage of Syria, and this site is intended to preserve information on aspects of traditional manufacturing practices of urban and rural areas. It is hoped that this will be a resource for students and researchers working on the material cultures and socio-economic life of Syria and the surrounding regions of the Middle East.
This site is organized according to the cities, towns, and other settlements of modern Syria. Within each of these you will find primary written sources, secondary historical studies, ethnographic and archaeological research, and photographs that provide evidence for craft activities conducted in these locations across Syria from the seventh century to the present. The site will also be complemented by a range of resources designed to aid in the study of the craft traditions of this region. Some are already available on the site, and others will be added soon. These comprise: essays dealing with specific aspects of the crafts of Islamic Syria, links to related archives and collections, maps, short biographies of major primary sources, a glossary of technical terms, and a bibliography."

Saturday, June 3, 2017

PAVONe: Platform of the Arabic Versions of the New Testament

PAVONe: Platform of the Arabic Versions of the New Testament
Home
Since 2012 our Digital Humanities Centre at the University of Balamand has been developing an online database for the Arabic text of the Gospels. The database is accessible online and it's open for scholars.
The database contains the following sections/services:
  1. The "About" section: It includes a presentation of the project and the methodology used.
  2. The "Manuscripts" section: It allows the user to browse the Gospels manuscripts transcribed in the database. Two browsing modalities are offered: the first one allows the scholar to visualize the manuscripts in their geographical location using a geotagging feature; the second one allows the filtration of the manuscripts by a variety of parameters (date, language...). Both modalities lead to the same resources and give the researcher the possibility of displaying some codicological and paleographical properties of the manuscripts and their content as well.
  3. The "Lectionary" section: It gives the liturgical structure of the lectionary as used by the Rum Orthodox Church and allows the researcher to browse the corresponding pericopes in the lectionary manuscripts. All the transcribed texts are published with a copy of the manuscript containing the reading. This allows the scholar to examine the original digital photo of the text and to compare it with our reading.
  4. The "Citations" section: In this section, we identified all the citations and allusions of the Gospels verses in the literature produced by Christians and Muslims in the first millennium. We limited our sources to the works mentioned in  the monumental work: "Christian-Muslim Relations. A Bibliographical History". This section enables the researchers to browse all these citations and allusions and to compare them with their parallels in the lectionaries and/or continuous texts of the Gospels.
  5. The "Search" section: this module allows the researcher to look for a specific verse in all the contents of the database regardless of the type of the source. The user can search, for example, for a verse in the "Muslim-Christian citations" and lectionaries at the same time...